Stone Quarries were an important part of Oakland’s growth and development.
In Oakland’s earliest days, construction materials like stone blocks or paving stones were often imported as sailing-ship ballast, “the wrong way” around Cape Horn. (The blocks of buff-colored Indiana sandstone which today ring Astro Circle – salvaged from the first Oakland High school – reportedly arrived this way.) However, this was a difficult, highly dangerous, expensive and slow way to build a town.
Oakland’s geologic variability (due, we now know, to our position near the leading edge of a continental plate – the same conditions which produce earthquakes) meant that a variety of useful construction material (beyond sand and gravel) was readily obtainable from surface deposits (or even outcroppings), depending on where one chose to swing a pickaxe. Most locally-quarried rock (except sandstone) tended to be of fractured, metamorphic shale-like kinds, but it ranged in colors and potential applications, and since much of Oakland’s period of most rapid growth occurred prior to the adoption of asphalt (in the 1920s), macadam was used extensively in road building. This led to more than a few quarries throughout the area as the city spread out.
Stone quarried in Oakland included the ubiquitous so-called ‘blue rock’ (as known in the trade), a flinty, grained, dark bluish-colored, metamorphosed sandstone; siliceous shales in various colors – mainly reddish or yellowish chert (aka “phthanite”) or jasper; sandstones ranging from hard, close- or medium-grained, and grayish, to soft, crumbly, and buff-colored. There was also disintegrated quartz, fine-grained basalt, granite, and even scattered pockets of limestone. Some uses to which this material was put (beyond the macadam roads mentioned earlier) included top dressings for garden walkways, cemetery paths, and sidewalks; concrete; rubble, ballast, and gravel.
Partial listing of defunct quarries
“Berkeley Rock Company’s Quarry; Berkeley Rock Co., J. T. Cochran, manager, Bacon Block, Oakland. This quarry is one quarter of a mile beyond the end of Broadway, Oakland, and is reached by College avenue. The deposit is a much altered trap-rock, and is used for concrete, macadam, and gutter rock. The company produces about 250 yards a day.” 1
This site is now occupied by the College Preparatory Academy.
“Blair Quarries; The Realty Syndicate, 1160 Broadway, Oakland, owner. On Moraga road, just east of Mountain View Cemetery, and about 4 miles from the city hall. The main quarry is located near the summit of the hill, about 100 yards up the slope north of the road. It was opened in 1901. The rock is a chert (phthanite), mostly red, some yellowish, and is extensively used as road-dressing in Piedmont district and in the cemetery. The company is opening a ‘blue rock’ quarry, of metamorphosed sandstone, on the south side of the road, and is tunneling in quest of rock for a quarry 50 yards west of and below the larger Blair quarry. Twenty men are at work.” 1
The site of the main quarry is now occupied by the Piedmont Maintenance office; the southern quarry is now occupied by Reservoir Number Two at the top of Blair Avenue.
”Blake and Bilger Company’s Quarry (formerly the Oakland Paving Company’s Quarry); F. W. Bilger, secretary and treasurer, Central Bank Building, Fourteenth and Broadway, Oakland. Located on McAdam street, just off Broadway. It was opened about 1870, and has been operated almost constantly since. It is the largest quarry in Alameda County. The rock is typical ‘blue rock,’ as termed by the trade, and is a metamorphosed sandstone, with lime carbonate in seams. It is used for macadam, concrete, and gutter rock. Two Gates crushers handle all the rock. Two steam percussion drills are in operation. From 60 to 80 quarrymen are employed.” 1
This site is now the Broadway/51st/Pleasant Valley Road shopping center.
- “Broadway Quarry, on both sides of Broadway, near Hudson street, Oakland. The rock is a soft, friable, buff-colored sandstone, interbedded with soft, slate-colored shales. Idle in October, 1904.” 1
- “Crusher Quarry; E. B. & A. L. Stone Company, 900 Broadway, Oakland. Near their crushing plant on Laundry Farm; opened about 1899. Reddish, decayed rock is hauled from face without crushing, and used for sidewalks, etc.” 1
- “Curran Quarry; John Curran, School street, owner. This was formerly the O’Brien Quarry, and is on Maple avenue, Fruitvale District. The rock is termed ‘red cement gravel, and is a very much altered rock, recemented by a red clay. Used as a top dressing for roads and walks.”
- “Diamond Canon Quarry (Heyland Quarry); Hutchinson Company, 401 Fourteenth street, Oakland, owner. There are two quarries; in the upper one the rock is a hard, medium-grained, gray sandstone; in the lower quarry face in the canon, 100 yards below the road, is a flinty, dark-colored, metamorphosed sandstone. The crushing plant is abandoned and badly out of repair.” 1
“Easton & Wilson Quarry; Clark Avery, at quarry, owner. On Lincoln avenue, 1 mile from Diamond P. O. It was opened about 1899 and worked intermittently for two years. The rock, a blue metamophosed sandstone, occurs in boulders. Large quantities of soft sandstone and slaty shales made so much waste that it was unprofitable to work at the time. Two other small openings show similar characteristics.” 1
This site is now occupied by the Head-Royce School.
- “Fruitvale White Gravel Mine (Packard Quarry); George Mack, in charge. A small quarry at the end of Maple avenue, Fruitvale District. A disintegrated quartz rock, with a clay cementing material in seams; used as a top dressing for roads and walks.” 1
- “Leona Heights Quarry; E. B. & A. L. Stone Company, 900 Broadway, Oakland, owner; G. H. Luchs, superintendent. It was formerly the California Improvement Company’ quarry. It is on Laundry Farm, on the summit of a prominent ridge, one mile north of Mills College. The rock is a fine-grained basalt, and is used for macadam and concrete. The quarry face is about 125 feet high. Two gravity trams, one 2500 feet long and the other 1200 feet, take the rock from the quarry to the crusher at the termini of the railroads, both narrow and broad gauge. About 300 yards a day are rushed by two Gates crushers. Electricity is used for power. Thirty-five men are at work in the quarry.” 1
- "Leona Quarry; Operator: Gallagher & Burk, Inc.; Address & County: 7100 Mountain Blvd., Oakland, CA 94605; Phone: (510) 635-5200; Latitude: 37.78, Longitude: -122.16, and Mine location number: Map No. 3; Mineral commodity: Stone."2
- “Mills College Quarry; (same owner as the Leona Heights Quarry: E. B. & A. L. Stone Company, 900 Broadway, Oakland). Near the college grounds; opened c. 1892. The rock is a red gravel and clay mixture, and is used as top dressing for garden and side walks, without crushing. Electric trains, both broad and narrow gauge, enter this and the ‘Crusher Quarry.’” 1
“Piedmont Paving Company’s Quarry; C. D. Bates, Jr., secretary, Macdonough Building, Fourteenth street and Broadway, Oakland. About three fourths of a mile above the head of Lake Merritt and one fourth of a mile from Wildwood avenue. It was opened in 1878 by the Alameda Macadamizing Company, and reopened by the present management about 1892. The rock is a grained, metamorphosed sandstone, bluish in color, locally termed ‘blue rock.’ It is used chiefly for macadam, but some is utilized for rubble and ballast.” 1
This site is now Oakland Davie Tennis Stadium.
“Ransome Construction Company’s Quarry; office, 473 Fourteenth street, Oakland. This quarry is on the Old Fish Ranch road, about 5½ miles from the Oakland City Hall. It was opened in April, 1904. A tramway 600 feet long carries rock from the quarry face to the crusher at side of road. The rock is a fine-grained basalt, used for macadam and concrete. Some gutter rocks are sorted out. The rock is hauled to Oakland and Berkeley by wagon. Eighteen quarrymen were at work in October, 1904.” 1
This site is now part of Sibley Regional Volcanic Reserve.
- Red Rock Quarry, located in Oakland, owned by W. H. Maxwell. 1
- “Syndicate Quarry; The Realty Syndicate, 1160 Broadway, Oakland, owner. Located on south side of Buckeye avenue, half a mile northeast of the Catholic cemetery. It was opened about 1901, and has been worked intermittently. The rock is a jasper (phthanite), similar to that in the Blair quarry.” 1
“Alameda County contains large quarries of granite, limestone and sandstone, suitable for building purposes. The quarry from which the stone used in erecting the Deaf and Dumb and Blind Asylum was obtained, is situated on Pryal’s ranch, about four miles from Oakland. The supply of this stone in exhaustless. A quarry of close-grained, grayish sandstone, has recently been opened about four miles from Hayward’s. Nearly all the brown sandstone used in San Francisco, is obtained from quarries in this vicinity.” 3
- The Structural and Industrial Materials of California, Bulletin No. 38, California, State Mining Bureau, San Francisco, California, 1906
- Mines and Mineral Producers Active in California (1994-1995), Special Publication 103 (Revised 1996), California Department of Conservation, Division of Mines and Geology, in cooperation with California Department of Conservation, Office of Mine Reclamation.
- The Natural Wealth of California … with a detailed description of each county, its topography, Scenery, Cities and Towns, Agricultural Advantages, Mineral Resources, and Varied Productions, By Titus Fey Cronise, San Francisco: H. H. Bancroft & Company, 1868, pp. 153. (Available on Google Books)
- Stone Quarries & Beyond – Alameda County
To-do for this article
- locate quarry sites on map (some street names have changed)
- reduce percentage of copied material (indicated by italics), perhaps by summarizing