'Pioneers of Hahndorf 1839' by E A Wittwer
[Published by EA Wittwer at Hahndorf, April 1983 - copy supplied by Harold Gallasch February 2016]
In the year 1838, Pastor A.L.C. Kavel led approximately 500 Lutheran religious refugees from the German provinces of Brandenburg, Posen and Silesia to South Australia. The first arrived when the infant colony was less than two years old. They arrived in four sailing ships. The first two, the "Prince George" and the "Bengalee" arrived in November 1838, the "Zebra" arrived in late December 1838 while the "Catherina" reached Port Misery in January 1839.
The passengers from the "Prince George" and some of those from the "Bengalee" camped at Port Misery until land was leased from G.F. Angas at what is now known as Klemzig. Captain D.M. Hahn of the "Zebra" was so concerned for the welfare of his passengers that he helped in obtaining a lease on 240 acres of land in the Adelaide Hills so that they might settle as a group. This land was part of the Mount Barker Special Survey granted to Messrs W. Dutton, D. MacFarlane and J. Finnis in January 1839; it comprised sections 4002, 4003 and 4004 of what is now the Hundred of Onkaparinga. While most of the "Catherina" passengers settled initially at Glen Osmond some of their number came to Hahndorf. Quite a number of persons from the "Prince George" and a few from the "Bengalee" also settled at Hahndorf.
The original Hahndorf settlement was situated on the north-eastern side of the Main Street stretching from the northern boundary to Windsor Avenue and east to the Golf Course. The town land was subdivided into numerous blocks. These allotments were classified into house and land (or farm) blocks. the position of the house blocks is shown on the map. They were numbered from 1 to 54. Each family was allocated a house allotment (usually about an acre in area) and several land allotments which were scattered throughout the village. Thus each family had a total allocation of about 4 acres.
It has been a source of interest to those involved in the tracing and writing of the history of Hahndorf to discover the original occupants of the house allotments. In the late 1890s, during his time as teacher and pastor in St Michael's Lutheran Church, Dr A. Brauer spoke with some of the surviving pioneers and attempted to draw up such a list. This was the source of the list on the Pioneer Memorial Gardens gateway. Further research has demonstrated that quite a number of inaccuracies exists in the list. Brauer was dealing with old people attempting to recall childhood memories. There were rapid changes in the Hahndorf village in the early years and several families with the same surname - hence the confusion!
This listing attempts to correct, as much as possible, the Brauer listing and to put into print a map of the homestead blocks which is as accurate as possible. Obviously, not all the details have been verified from written sources and where speculation has taken place it is stated to be so.
The plan needs some explanation. Firstly the numbers enclosed in rectangles at the top of the map indicate, together with the arrows, the approximate position of the three original sections (section 4004 extends beyond the boundaries of the map to Windsor Avenue). The boundaries of the sections are parallel to the edges of the map.
No street names have been included on the map; instead letters have been used to indicate the position of the original streets. The correspondence with 1983 names is as follows:
A - Male Crescent B - Victoria Street C - Church Street D - Balhannah Road E - Kaesler Road F- Molen Road
G - unnamed H - Kramm Avenue I - Schubert Drive J - English Street K - Collins Street O - Main Street
It should be noted that over the years, many of these streets have been widened, realigned, extended and even fenced-off! Brauer used the terms of convenience of North Lane and South Lane for streets B and J respectively but no historical records so far discovered support this use. Over the years, various nick-names have been applied to various streets - some were not complimentary but, nevertheless, were quite descriptive of prevailing conditions!
From a careful study of the layout of the house blocks several points become apparent. It would appear that 52 blocks in four groups of thirteen were originally laid out with the larger blocks 53 and 54 being added. This could well have been the case as more settlers arrived Hahndorf. Blocks 27 and 28 are shown as having "appendages" facing Church Street. In the case of block 27, the homestead was built on the appendage. This contrasts with some other Main Street blocks which had land blocks adjoining them and facing Church Street - and are always shown as separate allotments.
Following the resurveying of the town in the early 1860s, a renumbering of blocks took place. House and land blocks were no longer numbered separately and where owners held adjoining blocks, consolidation often took place. The large numbers shown on the blocks are the original house block numbers. The small numbers on the road frontage of some blocks are the current (1983) street numbers.
The listing of pioneers gives the following information:
- original house block number on which the family settled
- 1860's allotment number for the block - the same number may appear for several blocks due to consolidation
- members of the settler family
- notes on subsequent places of residence of the family. No extra places means that the family (or the head of family) remained in Hahndorf until death. An * after the settler's name means that he or a close family member became the first registered owner after transfer from the trustees C and JCE Jaensch who held the land from 1840 until the early 1850s. Some indication is given where early changes took place. It is of interest to note that blocks 11 and 17 are the only ones which have been in the possession of the original settler family from 1839 to the present.
Three blocks at the intersection of streets C and D are prefixed by the letter C. This is not an official designation. These were allocated to the church. On C1 the first church was built in 1840 and the cemetery was laid out. C2 was apparently farmland for the pastor or more probably the teacher. The manse was built on C3 which probably also provided farm/garden land. The pastor was resident in Klemzig and later at Langmeil in the Barossa Valley and visited Hahndorf at intervals, usually staying for a fortnight at a time.
Pastor: August Ludwig Christian KAVEL (remained as Pastor of st Paul's Church until his death).
Teacher: Friedrich KAVEL (brother to the pastor) - left in 1840 being replaced by Gottlieb Ferdinand Welke.
Agricultural supervisor: Hermann KOOK (later suburban Adelaide and Tanunda).
54 (7&8) Johann Gottfried WUNDKE (later Friedrichstadt and Condowie).
1 (8) no original occupier is obvious from available records but could well have been held by Hermann KOOK and/or Julius FIEDLER both of whom had early ties with Hahndorf. Gottlieb BARTEL transferred to this block from block 49 at a later date.
2 (8) Gottfried BEHREND (sometimes BERNDT) (later Lobethal), wife Beate Louise (born Lichtensteiner) and daughter Beate Auguste Emilie (Mrs J. F. Mueller, later Miller).
3 (8) Friedrich Wilhelm NITSCHKE* (later Nain), wife Maria Elisabeth (born Suess) and children Johann Carl, Johann Wilhelm and Johanne Caroline (Mrs E. F. Krueger and Mrs C. F. Arnold). Mrs Nitschke may have died before arrival at Hahndorf or very early in the days of the settlement.
4 (9) Johann George PFEIFFER from Kay (later Lobethal) and Woodside areas) wife Anna Rosina (born Neumann) and children Johann Gottlieb, Johann Gottfried, Anna Elisabeth (Mrs Strauss), Johann George, Johanne Louise (Mrs J. C. Kowald) and Johann Christian.
5 (10) Gottlob SCHIRMER* (later Barossa).
6 (11) Johann Gottfried DOHNT (later Nairne), wife Anna Dorothea (born Neumann) and children Anna Dorothea (Mrs Gottlob Schirmer), Johanne Louise (Mrs J. W. Bartel and Mrs Sommer), Johann Gottfried, Johann Christian, Johann George and Maria Elisabeth (Mrs J.F. Zilm).
7 (12) Johann Gottfried HOFFMANN (later Nain), wife Eleonore (born Rinnert) and children Johann Friedrich and Johanne Louise.
8 (13) Dorothea Elisabeth SCHULZ (born Paech) a widow, and children Johanne Eleonore (Mrs Gottlob Paech) and Johann Gotthilf.
9 (14) August THOMAS* (by descendants) who soon married Johanne Eleonore Schumann , and her parents Christian SCHUMANN and Maria Elisabeth (born Schubert).
10 (15) Johann Gottfried LIEBELT (*by widow) wife Anna Elisabeth (born Pohle) and children Johanne Louise (Mrs J.C.Liebelt), Anna Dorothea (Mrs R. van der Molen) and Johann Gottfried.
11 (16) Johann Friedrich PAECH, joiner from Nickern, (*by widow) wife Johanne Louise (born Jachning) and children Johanne Karoline (Mrs J. F. T.Jaensch), Johanne Eleonore (Mrs F. W. Nitschke) and Johanne Louise (Mrs J. E. Rothe).
12 (17) Johann George HARTMANN *, wife Johanne Louise (born Preschel), children Johanne Caroline (Mrs J. George Paech) and Gottlob.
13 (17) Johann Friedrich SUESS, wife Christiane (born Thiele) and daughter Anna Eleonore (Mrs E. Farrell).
14 (18) Christian SCHUBERT (later whereabouts uncertain but probably Hahndorf and/or Gruenthal) wife Elisabeth (born Bartel) and son Christian.
15 (19) Johann Christian LIEBELT *, wife Maria Elisabeth (born Kuchel) and children Johann Gottlieb, Johann Christoph and Johanne Eleonore (Mrs J. C. F.Faehrmann).
16 (20) Johann Friedrich THIELE *, who soon married Anna Dorothea Schmidt, and probably wife's aunt Anna Elisabeth Schulz (born Schmidt).
17 (21) Samuel THIELE (*by son August), wife Anna Rosina (born Schulz) and children Johann Wilhelm and Johann August.
18 (22) Johann Friedrich Wilhelm WITTWER*, wife Johanne Leonore Henriette (born Gerlach) and son Friedrich Wilhelm and possibly daughter Johanne Caroline.
19 (22 & 23) Johann Christian Erdmann JAENSCH (later Nain) and wife Eleonore (born Rau).
20 (23) Gottfried RILLRICHT (later Gruenberg) wife Anna Dorothea (born Woith) children Johann Gottlob and Dorothea Elisabeth (Mrs W. Fischer).
21 (24) Gottlob ZILM* (later Nain) and sister Anna Dorothea (Mrs J.G. Hoffmann).
22 (25) Christian JAENSCH* wife Maria Elisabeth (born Klenke), and children Johann Gottlob, Johann Christian, Johann Friedrich Traugott, Maria Elizabeth (Mrs J. F. W. A. Pade and Johanne Louise (Mrs J. Gates), possibly a sister, Maria Jaensch.
23 (26) Gottfried LUBASCH* wife Anna Dorothea (born Greisser) and children Eleonore Henriette (Mrs J. W. Thiele), Anna Dorothea Louise (Mrs L. MacFarlane), Johanne Caroline (Mrs J. G. Liebelt), Maria Elizabeth (Mrs J.G. Liebelt and Mrs J.W. Paech) and possibly Anna Elisabeth.
24 (27) Gottfried NEUMANN (later Lobethal, Blumberg), wife Anna Maria (born Pfeiffer) and children Johanne Louise (Mrs J. K. F. Lauterbach), August, Wilhelm and Maria Elisabeth (Mrs C. W. Strauss).
25 (28) Johann Christoph SCHULZ*, wife Johanne Dorothea (born Frank) children Johann Christian, J. K. August and Johanne Louise (Mrs W. Habich).
26 (29) Samuel STEIKE (later Lobethal), wife Johanne Dorothea (born Paech) and children Johann Gottlieb, Johanne Eleonore (Mrs J. W. Preiss), Maria Elisabeth (Mrs R. Hittmann) and probably Johanne Louise.
27 (87 & 100) Johann George BOEHM*, wife Johanne Caroline (born Koenig) and children Johanne Louise (Mrs J. G. Kluge), Johanne Eleonore (Mrs W. A. Koch), Johann Ernst, Johanne Caroline (Mrs P. L. Schinckel), Johanne Dorothea (Mrs O. G. Rohrlach) and Traugott Wilhelm.
28 (88 & 102) Johann Samuel KUCHEL (later Kirchenbergen), Monarto and Murray Bridge), who soon married Anna Dorothea Klenke, and mother-in-law Anna Elisabeth Klenke (born Gierke).
29 (89) Johann Christoph LIEBELT (later Blakiston), wife Anna Dorothea (born Wolf), children Johann Friedrich August, Johanne Louise (Mrs J. K. J. Altmann) and Johann Gottfried, and parents Johann Christoph (senior) and Anna Elisabeth (born Steinborn).
30 (90) Johann George JANETZKI (later Victoria), wife Louise (born Lude) and children Johann Gotthilf and Johanne Louise (Mrs H. Mues).
31 (91) Gottfried NITSCHKE (probably died in the very early years of settlement) and wife Johanne Dorothea (born Wolff). Block taken over by Johann Gottlob Nitschke (from block 42).
32 (92) Gottlob LINKE (later Gruenberg).
33 (93) George JAESCHKE (died in early years of settlement), wife Dorothea Elisabeth (born Hoffmann) and children Johann Samuel, Anna Dorothea (Mrs G. Linke), Maria Elisabeth (Mrs G. F. Welke),Anna Rosina (Mrs J. G. Lange) and Johann Dienegott. Block soon in possession of Johann Samuel Jaeschke.
34 (94) Johann Christian THIELE *, wife Johanne Dorothea (born Klenke, widowed Zeunert) and daughter Johanne Louise (Mrs Haeusler), and children from his wife's first marriage Johanne Eleonore (Mrs J. C. Schubert) and Johann Christian Zeunert.
35 (95) Samuel BARTSCH (later Gruenberg), wife Eleonore (born Meissner) and children Johann Gottlieb, Johann Friedrich, Johann Christian, Eleonore and Samuel.
36 (96) Christian ZILM (later Nain), wife Anna Dorothea (born Mattiske) and children Friedrich Wilhelm and Johann Friedrich.
37 (97) Johann George PAECH* (later Paechtown), wife Anna Rosina (born Richter) and children Johann Christian, Gottlob, Johann George, Johanne Louise (Mrs F. W. Wittwer), Maria Elisabeth (Mrs J. C. Auricht) and possibly Johan Friedrich.
38 (98) Johann Christian BARTEL* (later Callington), wife Maria Elisabeth (born Kirschke) and children Johanne Louise (Mrs J. S. Jantke), Anna Maria (Mrs J. G. Jaensch), Dorothea Elisabeth (Mrs J. E. Boehm) and Johanne Caroline (Mrs J. G. Nitschke).
39 (99) Johann Christian SCHIRMER* (later Gruenberg), wife Anna Dorothea (born Kirsch) and son Gottlob. It is likely that his father, Friedrich Gottlob Schirmer and his children Johann George and Eleonore and the mother of Mrs Schirmer, Friedericke Kirsch, also lived here.
40 (114) Johann Gottlieb (or Gottlob) LANGE (later Lobethal and Walla Walla).
41 (113) Johann George KUCHEL, wife Anna Dorothea (born Seifert) and sons Johann Friedrich and Johann Gottlieb.
42 (112) Gottlob NITSCHKE (later Blakiston and Greenock Creek), wife Leonore (born Hirthe) and children Friedrich Wilhelm, Maria Elisabeth (Mrs J. Beinke) and possibly Anna Dorothea. Gottlob Nitschke soon moved to block 31.