The Pneumothorax was a method of treatment used on tuberculosis patients. 

From the New York State Journal of Medicine, March 1988

By the 1930s, the use of artificial pneumothorax became an accepted method of Treatment and certain adjuncts were introduced to supplement collapse therapy: intrapleural pneumocystis of adhesions, artificial neumoperitoneum and/or phrenic nerve resection to elevate and/or paralyze the diaphragm. Each time before "refills," fluoroscopy was repeated to determine the degree of lung collapse, subjecting

Dr Norman Bethune's Pneumo Apparatus. Made by G.P. Pilling & Son Co, Philadelphia. Loaned by Ronald A. Miller, MD. Inner cylinder suspended in water, graduated in centimeters; mercury manometer recorded intrathoracic pressure (photograph: Medical Illustration Services, Community General Hospital, Syracuse, NY).