Liverpool Firsts

1639 Jeremiah Horrocks of Toxteth: the first observation of the transit of Venus 1648 The first recorded cargo from America lands in Liverpool 1679 Liverpool's mayor founds the first charity for sailors 1715 Steer's Old Dock in Canning Place is the world’s first enclosed wet dock controlled by floodgates 1758 Building of the Lyceum, the first circulating library 1763 The first lighthouses to use parabolic mirrors are built by Liverpool's dock Master at Hoylake and Bidston 1770 Work begins on the Leeds-Liverpool canal, the longest and highest in Britain, finished in 1816 1770 St. Anne’s Church on St. Anne Street. The first use of iron columns to hold up balconies. 1776 Ether is first used as an anaesthetic 1776 The World First Lifeboat Station at Formby Point 1786 Great Howard Street houses the first purpose built prison 1790 World's first American consul, James Maury, is posted to Liverpool 1791 The first school for the blind opens at Commutation Row 1793 Liverpool becomes the first and only municipality with the right to issue its own money 1803 Liverpool Underwriter's Association is the world's first 1814 St George's, in Everton, is the first all cast iron framed church 1822 James Muspratt opens an alkali works in Vauxhall - the origins of ICI 1823 First mechanics lending library 1825 World's first school for deaf people 1830 World's first inter-city passenger railway line built by Liverpool & Manchester Railway Company 1830 World's first tunnel bored under a Metropolis. The Wapping Tunnel from Edge Hill to the south end docks. 1830 The world's first train shed and large wooden station roof are built at Crown Street station 1830 MP William Huskisson is the first railway fatality 1835 Lacy's publishes the world's first railway timetable 1836 A tunnel bored from Edge Hill to Lime Street station. The tunnel was made into a large open cutting in the 1880s, however one very small section still remains and is the oldest tunnel in use in the world under streets. 1836 Edge Hill station was move from the head of the Wapping Tunnel at Edge Hill to the head of the Lime Street Tunnel. Today it is the world's oldest used station. 1838 The first travelling Post Office nets between Liverpool and Birmingham 1839 Laird’s shipyard built the world’s first screw propelled steamer, Robert F. Stockton, a 63ft tug for use on North American waterways. 1839 The start of the world’s greatest steeple chase at Aintree race course 1840 Cunard's wooden paddle-steamer Britannia is the first scheduled transatlantic passenger service 1840 Liverpool appoints Britain's first borough engineer 1840 World's first photograph developing and printing service 1841 Brunswick Buildings: the first purpose-built office block 1841 The Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (later RSPCA) is founded 1842 First public baths and wash-houses in Upper Frederick St. 1844 Blackburne House is the first girl's day grammar school 1845 Liverpool is the destination of the first package tour 1847 Dr Duncan becomes the world's first Medical Officer 1847 The world’s first purpose designed and built public park, Birkenhead Park. Central Park in New York as based on it. 1848 First British trades council. 1848 Albert Dock, the first non-combustible warehousing system in the world 1848 Albert Dock, the world's first warehouses to use hydraulic hoists. 1848 St. Georges Hall has the world's first ever air-conditioning system. 1848 Lime Street Station has the world's largest single span roof. 1850 Liverpool is the first borough to start a library committee 1851 The first provincial Children's Hospital opens in the city 1856 The 21 ton Horsfall Gun - the largest in the world - is built at the Mersey Forge in Sefton Street; it could fire a 300lb cannon ball five miles 1857 Liverpool Rugby Club is the world's first open club. 1857 Liverpool starts Britain's first chess club. 1857 World’s largest water works to supply Liverpool with water at Rivington Pike, piping water 27 miles. 1858 The world's first steel ship, the Ma Roberts, built in for Dr. Livingstone's African exploration by the Laird shipyard. 1859 The first nurse paid to look after the poor. 1859 The first tramway in the UK at Liverpool Docks. 1860 First purpose built public library. 1860 The world’s first ‘street railway’ at Woodside Birkenhead 1861 Britain's first ecumenical conference. 1861 A Liverpool made gun fires the first shot of the American Civil War. 1862 The first street refuges for pedestrians built. 1862 First provincial school of nursing set up in Liverpool 1862 Laird shipyard build the American Confederate CSS Alabama commerce raider. This ship sunk 65 ships with a predominately Liverpool crew. A total never been equalled by any ship since. 1862 The Jones Quiggin shipyard built the first steel ship to cross the Atlantic, the Banshee. Built for the Confederate states of America as a fast blockade runner. 1864 The first slum clearance scheme gives the Medical Officer power to demolish unsafe and unfit buildings 1864 The world’s first metal framed glass curtain walled building – Oriel Chambers, Water Street. 1865 The last act of the American Civil War was the surrender to the Mayor of Liverpool of the Confederate ship Shenandoah, by her captain James Waddell, at the Town Hall. 1865 The last official lowering of the American Confederate flag was in the River Mersey when the CSS Shenandoah was handed over to Captain Payton of the Royal Navy. 1867 Britain's first steamroller is bought by Liverpool 1867 Liverpool Velocipedes is the country's first cycling club 1868 Liverpool is the first borough to secure an Act of Parliament to establish a tram network 1869 St Martins Cottages are the first municipal housing 1870 Liverpool Society of Accountants is the first 1875 The first disarmament campaign: Liverpool Peace Society 1876 Britain's first gorilla arrives at Liverpool Docks 1876 Landing stage at the Pier Head. The largest floating structure in the world. 1877 The Walker Art Gallery is the first UK public art gallery 1879 World’s first mechanically propelled submarine, Resurgam, built at Birkenhead 1880 Liverpool hosts the first Irish Nationalist MP in England - TP O'Connor at the Liverpool Exchange. 1880 Liverpool starts work on the largest artificial reservoir in Europe to supply Liverpool with water, at Vyrnwy in Wales. 1883 The Liverpool Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children - forerunner of the NSPCC - is founded. 1884 Britain's first female doctor opens a practice in Liverpool 1886 The first major under-river tunnel is built under the Mersey 1886 The world's first cut into rock underground rail station at James Street. 1886 Liverpool carried out and financed the first ever Atlantic telegraph cable. 1886 Northern Hospital has the first purpose-built ambulance 1887 Everton FC are one of the founding clubs of the first football league competition 1889 Liverpool Gas Company installs the first pre-payment gas meters 1889 Liverpool's police force is the first to wear rubber-soled boots for night duty 1891 John Brodie invents the goalnet, which is first used by Everton FC 1892 Liverpool University opens the first Marine Biological Station 1892 The world’s first purpose built football ground; Goodison Park, Everton FC. 1893 The world's first electric elevated urban railway, the Liverpool Overhead Railway. 1893 The world's first automatic signalling used on the Overhead Railway. 1893 The world's first all-electric colour light signalling used on the Overhead Railway. 1894 First ever radio broadcast made by Oliver Lodge, Liverpool University professor of physics 1895 First British school of architecture and applied art 1896 The x-ray is used in medical diagnosis for the first time 1897 Liverpool is the first to employ female health visitors 1898 First city to employ a municipal bacteriologist 1898 School of Tropical Medicine is the first founded in the UK 1899 Oliver Lodge invents the car engine ignition system 1901 Liverpool runs the first anti-tuberculosis campaign in Britain 1901 Seaforth Sands on the Overhead Railway installs the first escalator in a railway station 1901 The world’s first filmed crime re-enactment in Bootle. 1901 The world’s largest brick building. Stanley Dock Tobacco warehouse. 1902 The interconnected enclosed docks system is the largest in the world. 1902 The School of Tropical medicine is the first British medical institution to gain the Nobel Prize for Medicine for connecting the mosquito with malaria. 1902 Hatton Garden fire station has the first motor fire engine 1904 The University of Liverpool founds the first school of veterinary science in the country. 1905 The world's first pre-cast concrete building - Eldon Street apartments. 1907 The Liver Buildings has the world’s largest clock-faces. 1907 The Liver Buildings is the first large scale ferro-concrete building in the world. 1907 The Liver Buildings is Europe's first skyscraper. 1908 Boy Scouts: Birkenhead was the home of the first ever scouts group 1909 Eleanor Rathbone becomes the first woman councillor 1909 Woolworths opens its first British store on Church Street 1912 First automatic telephone exchange 1913 New York World carries the first 'word cross', or crossword, compiled by Liverpudlian Arthur Wynne 1913 Liverpool-born John Archer is elected Britain's first black mayor, in Battersea 1917 First public commercial library in the country 1919 Liverpool's is the first - and only - police force to strike 1919 The first flat slab reinforced concrete building in the UK at Garston. The Bryant & May art-deco factory. 1919 The first department of oceanography opens at the University 1920 The world’s first all welded hulled ship, Fullagar, built by the Laird’s shipyard. 1924 Lister Drive power station has the first hyperbolic cooling tower 1925 Crosshall Street hosts the country's first Juvenile Court 1927 The Bluecoat is the first British Arts centre 1927 West Derby is the site of the first municipal Jewish cemetery 1928 William (Dixie) Dean of Everton FC, scores a record 60 goals in a season in the leagues top-flight division. 1932 The first purpose-built boxing stadium (Bixteth Street) 1933 Dr Minnitt at Liverpool's maternity hospital uses gas and air in childbirth for the first time 1934 Liverpool Police are the first force to use two-way radios 1934 Tatler, on Church Street, is first provincial news theatre 1934 Mersey road tunnel, 2.3 mi (3.7 km) long, is the longest subaqueous road tunnel in the world. 1935 Everton FC are the first football team to be televised live; vs. Arsenal 1936 The Liverpool Corporation Act is the first giving the council the right to buy, sell and develop land. 1936 Speke sees the first purpose-built municipal industrial estate 1943 Richard Burton makes his theatrical debut at the Royal Court 1944 Hua Chow Pao is Britain's first Chinese newspaper 1946 Liverpool FC's Jack Chalmer becomes the first player to score three consecutive hat-tricks 1947 World's first radar lighthouse 1948 The Mersey Ferries were the first to have a radar system for safe navigation in fog 1949 South Liverpool FC are the first club to permanently install and play under floodlights. 1950 The first helicopter service flies from Liverpool to Cardiff 1950 The world’s first purpose built angle flight deck aircraft carrier, built at Laird’s shipyard; HMS Ark Royal. 1952 Hospital radio starts in Liverpool 1952 First package holiday flight departs from Liverpool airport 1952 The Albert Dock complex is listed as is the largest collection of grade 1 listed buildings in the UK. 1953 Liverpool's Lita Roza is the first woman to top the pop charts 1959 National Westminster opens the first drive-in bank 1958 Everton FC are the first English football club to install undersoil pitch heating. 1959 First mass x-ray campaign 1960 Martin's is the first bank to use a computer 1961 St. George’s School Wallasey is the UKs first successful 100% solar heated building. Also the most northerly substantial solar building. 1962 The Mersey Docks and Harbour Company is the first port authority to use a computer. 1962 The world’s first hovercraft service from Wallasey to North Wales. 1964 Liverpool's police force is the first to use closed circuit TV 1967 First seminar for orchestra conductors 1967 The largest panel of stained glass in the world at the new Metropolitan Cathedral. 1968 World's best selling poetry book published by Liverpool 8 Poets 1969 The Beatles are the only musicians to achieve five Diamond albums, signifying U.S. sales of 10 million copies or more. 1971 Knowsley Safari Park; the largest in Europe, with the largest herd of African elephants outside Africa. 1971 Seaforth Dock opened. The largest in the UK with the largest lock gates in the world. 1972 A small section of the original 1936 Lime Street rail tunnel at Edge Hill station becomes the oldest used rail tunnel in the world, after the closure of the Crown Street Tunnel in Liverpool. 1979 Liverpool Anglican cathedral completed after 77 years of construction. Britain's largest, with the world's largest Gothic arches, organ and the highest and heaviest bells. Also the world’s longest nave and largest tower. 1984 Liverpool FC becomes the first club to win three major trophies in one season 1984 The first British International Garden Festival is held in Liverpool 1991 Liverpool FC achieves a record 18 league titles. 1997 The Roy Castle Foundation for Lung Cancer Research is the world's first dedicated cancer research centre. 1999 Everton FC is the first English club to reach 6,000 goals in the top-flight division 2000 World’s longest mural at Alder Hey hospital. 2001 Liverpool is named World Capital of Pop Music with 53 No. 1 chart hits since 1953. 2003 Everton FC are the first English football club to play 100 seasons in the English top-flight division. 2003 Liverpool JM university installs the world's largest fully robotic telescope in the Canary Islands for research. 2004 St. Georges Hall was voted, by the European Architectural Commission, the finest public building constructed in Europe in the past 200 years. 2004 Oldest timepiece maker in the world – Sewills. Established 1800. 2004 Liverpool named a World Heritage Site by UNESCO 2005 Liverpool University discovered a new layer near the Earth's core. 2005 Liverpool FC achieves a British record of 5 European Cup wins. 2005 Liverpool was named IT and Telecommunications Capital of Europe by Foreign Direct Investment magazine. 2006 World's first zoonosis research centre – animal borne diseases such as birdflue. 2006 The Beatles so far to date have achieved a record 20 US and 17 UK No 1 singles. They also hold the record for the most No 1 albums of all time, with 15 albums on the US Billboard. They have sold a record, of over a billion worldwide. And still counting. 2007 World's first oscillating sculpture in Moorfields. A section of a building wall rotates in three dimensions.