From the Registration form for the National Register of Historic Places for Paul Smith's Hotel Cottages (pdf), submitted January 13, 1999
The Paul Smith's Hotel Cottages (c.1890s) are located on the north shore of Lower St. Regis Lake in the Town of Brighton, Franklin County, New York. Now part of the Paul Smith's College campus, these three c. 1890s Colonial Revival buildings were originally part of the former Paul Smith's Hotel complex (1859-1962). Although the main building burned in 1930, hotel operations continued in auxiliary buildings until 1962. The nominated property includes the Harriman, Glover and Baker Cottages, which occupy a secluded stretch of lake shore to the west of the former hotel site, now a college campus. Oriented in a row facing Lower Saint Regis Lake to the south, their set-backs are irregular, growing closer to the shoreline as they move away from the former hotel. The cottages are bounded by an access road on the north and the lake shore on the south, a hill to the east, and a replica cottage administration building (completed by the college in 1998) on the west. A concrete sidewalk, probably dating from hotel days, accesses the cottages from the lake side. The cottages enjoy an unspoiled view of Lower Saint Regis Lake with traditional Adirondack camps visible on the opposite shore. This setting and the wooded surroundings in the immediate area remain intact to the period of significance. Near the main campus, but screened from it by a wooded hill, this well-defined cluster of three cottages on the lake shore retains the feeling of Paul Smith's Hotel, of which it is the most substantial and cohesive remaining evidence. Extant historic built features associated with the cottages are stone retaining walls, a concrete sidewalk which accesses the cottages from the lake side and concrete steps leading from the the sidewalk up to Harriman Cottage. There is only one non-contributing resource on the property: a modern, two-car garage behind Glover Cottage.
Originally, there were 15 cottages associated with Paul Smith's Hotel. Baker, Glover and Harriman Cottages (named for their former occupants) are three of the five that remained until recently. The other two remaining cottages, Lambert and McNaughton, have not been included in this nomination due to loss of integrity and distance from this cluster of three cottages. According to the scant records available, Glover was built first, c.1890, followed by Baker, farthest out from the hotel, in 1893, and Harriman, nearest the hotel, in 1894. They were "...built for particular guests who specified the architecture and interior design they desired" 1 by hotel employees, of lumber from Paul Smith's mill (located further out along the same road and shown as "Department Buildings" on the c.1905 map [actually c. 1915-1930]. While each of the three cottages is individually distinctive, they are all two-story, gambrel-form, eaves-front, frame buildings with prominent dormers, mortared stone foundations, wood-shingle siding, and replacement asphalt roofs. All had verandas spanning the full front of the house and wrapping around one side, their roofs supported by Baker Cottage (No. 11 on the c.1905 map [see note above] of "Paul Smith's Adirondack Park").
The site upon which Paul Smith built his second hotel, on Lower St. Regis Lake (then called Follensby Pond), was suggested by Daniel Saunders, a well known Massachusetts lawyer whom Paul was guiding in September 1858. Dr. Hezekiah B. Loomis of New York City loaned him $13,000 to build a hotel "large enough so that the men could bring their wives on these hunting and fishing trips." 2
Construction began in December 1858 on a 17-bedroom hotel with a large living room.
Just before opening the hotel, on May 5, 1859, Paul married Lydia Helen Martin, who was from a family of renowned guides and had been educated at the Troy Seminary for Girls (later renamed the Emma Willard School) in Troy, New York. 25 Leaving his father and mother to run Hunter's Home, Paul and Lydia immediately began their life as hotel keepers on Lower St. Regis Lake. Lydia's education was put to good use in the new establishment, where much of the credit for its success was given to her excellent meals, her attention to each guest's comfort and her astute business management.
Originally named the St. Regis House, the hotel became universally known as Paul Smith's Hotel. During Smith family ownership, it was always a seasonal hotel, usually officially opening sometime in June and closing in October, though these dates could be stretched by regular clients.
Lydia and Paul had three sons, Henry (b. 1861), Phelps (b. 1862) and Apollos A., Jr., (b. 1871), also known as Paul. During the Civil War, the hotel was filled with men of sufficient wealth who were able to hire substitutes to go to the front and who wanted to lie low themselves. By the end of the war, Paul was able to pay off the mortgage to Dr. Loomis and had saved $50,000. Over time, he invested in 30,000 to 40,000 acres of land surrounding his original 50 acres, including ten lakes, the waters and shores of which he owned entirely. He sold lake shore sites for private camps at an enormous profit to the wealthy families who came to his hotel and wanted places of their own.
Among the early guests at the hotel who wrote about their visits were Theodore Roosevelt, who visited many summers of his boyhood and young manhood, and Dr. Edward L. Trudeau, who later became famous for his study and treatment of tuberculosis in Saranac Lake. Trudeau described the hotel in 1874:
Paul Smith's at that time was a very different place from what it [later] became. . . . Things were very primitive but most comfortable. There was no running water in the hotel, and a trip to the spring under the bank with a pail supplied the drinking water; but Mrs. Paul Smith's influence was seen everywhere in the house, in the clean and comfortable rooms, the good beds, the excellent cooking which she did or supervised herself, and the feeling of welcome and home with which she impressed all her guests." 3
By 1875 the hotel was enlarged to a three story building accommodating more than 100 guests. 4
Paul sold one of the first pieces of property to Dr. Loomis who, in 1879, built a large, richly furnished cottage to the west of the hotel, which the family occupied during the season, taking most of their meals in the hotel. However, by 1890, Paul had repurchased this property. Built on a hill, Loomis Cottage established the shoreline west of the hotel as a prestigious location for private cottages. Loomis Cottage burned March 1975.
The comforts and modern conveniences found at Paul Smith's Hotel, located in what was considered at the time to be a backwoods wilderness, were noted by a number of writers.
Seneca Ray Stoddard, in his book Adirondacks published in 1880, gave a most graphic description. "Paul Smith's is a surprise to everybody; an astonishing mixture of fish, fashion, pianos and puppies. Brussels carpeting and cowhide boots; surrounded by a dense forest; out of the way of all travel save that which is its own; near the best hunting and fishing grounds, with all modern appliances, and a table that is seldom equalled in the best of city hotels, set right down in the midst of a howling wilderness. While without the noble buck crashes through the tangled forest; within, his noble namesake straddles elegantly over the billiard tables and talks of horses. Out on the lake the theoretical veteran fisherman casts all manner of flies; while in the parlors the contents of huge Saratoga trunks are scientifically displayed, and nets are spread for different kinds of fish. Poodles and pointers, hounds, setters, dandies and other species are found. Feathers and fishing rods, point lace and pint bottles, embryo Nimrods, who never knew a more destructive weapon than a yard stick, hung all around with revolvers and game bags, cartridge pouches and sporting guns." 5
The same year of 1880; Wallaces's Guide to the Adirondacks also described the hotel as:
...supplied with every modern convenience, including bath rooms, barber shop and billiard tables. There is an extensive livery stable and a telegraph office connected with the house, likewise a boat and guide building which affords accommodations for 100 boats and guides. Tents, blankets and all the paraphernalia required in camp life, also, every variety of the choicest supplies, including numerous delicacies, are furnished to all who wish them. 6
The next year, 1881, a year-round post office called Paul Smiths was established at the hotel, a common arrangement in this area, and Paul became postmaster. In the summer of 1885, President Grover Cleveland visited the hotel.
Although many improvements to the original hotel were made during the eighties, the biggest changes came after the Paul Smith's Hotel Company was organized on December 12, 1890. Paul, Lydia and their three sons were all named as directors. Less than a month later, on January 3, 1891, Henry died, apparently of pneumonia. His mother Lydia grieved so for him that she herself died November 5 the same year. Paul's happiest days were now in the past, and he and his two remaining sons threw their energies into expansion of the hotel.
The growth of the company between its incorporation in 1890 and 1905 was truly remarkable. A new store building, 7 an office building with living quarters for the Smith family [on the second floor], shops for woodworking, blacksmithing and electrical work, separate dormitory facilities for male and female employees, a stable with capacity for 60 horses, [a four-story warehouse, a saw mill], a planing mill, two boiler houses, a large launch house, a laundry building, [a large woodshed] and a beautiful casino building located on the shore of Lower St. Regis Lake, all were constructed during this period. The casino, crowned by its five-story stone tower, was a marvel. It housed separate men's and women's billiard parlors, a grill room [and kitchen], a bowling alley and a stock exchange office containing a ticker tape machine wired directly to the New York Stock Exchange on Wall Street. 8
Nearby was the nine-hole St. Regis Golf Club, of which Paul Smith was a founder in 1896. It was used mainly by guests of the hotel and members who owned private camps in the area, until it closed in 1949.
No architect's name has been associated with the design of any buildings at Paul Smith's Hotel before 1897. From an undated, broad-view photo it can be seen that the styles, of buildings in the hotel complex changed with the times in which they were built, beginning with the simple vernacular Greek Revival-form buildings and additions which accumulated to become the main hotel; the French Second Empire style housing for women employees (as well as the Smith family cottage, not seen in the photo); and the later Colonial Revival hotel store and casino, which most resemble the hotel cottages.
The sources that itemized all this development failed to mention construction of the hotel cottages, and relatively little information about them has survived.
Tyler relates some historic references to the cottages:
The Smiths built a number of attractive cottages which they rented or leased for a year or more at a time to their guests who wanted to have a summer home in the area, but preferred to be close to the hotel. Some of those buildings were built to the size and design that the renter desired, and requested. Others were designed by the Smiths. Each so-called cottage was beautiful and added much to the charm of the particular place in which it was setting. Each of these cottages . . . bore the name of the occupant. 9
An 1898 hotel brochure mentions that:
there are 12 cottages at Paul Smith's Hotel. The cottages are attractive in architecture and convenient in arrangement. A summer spent in such a place is an ideal existence. The late Dr. Alfred L. Loomis owned and occupied a cottage here. Dr. E. L. Trudeau also has a beautiful cottage near the hotel.
Glover Cottage, the smallest of the three cottages, was apparently built c. 1890. It had five bedrooms, two baths, living room, dining room, kitchen, two beautiful fireplaces, and porches all around. In 1894, the opening date for the hotel was June 15th. On this day, C. C. Glover of Washington, D. C., was listed as an early arrival, along with Dr. Trudeau, William G. Rockefeller, H. M. Twombly and the Robert Hoes. 10
Charles Carroll Glover was a Washington, D. C., financier, who became the chairman of the board of Riggs National Bank in 1921 and retained the position for many years. He "...inaugurated and successfully carried through Congress projects for establishing of Rock Creek, Potomac and Zoological parks, the erection of the P.E. Cathedral, the American U. buildings, the new Corcoran Art Gallery and other important projects." 11
Baker Cottage was built in 1893, according to the only sources we have. It was the largest of the three cottages and reported to be "...one of the luxury cottages built as part of the old hotel complex and in its heyday it rented for $2,000 per season. The first floor was divided into a kitchen, butler's pantry, and two spacious dining rooms; the upper story contained six bedrooms and three baths." 12 This cottage was named for Dr. Fales Baker, a surgeon on the Philadelphia Main Line. Mrs. Baker's mother lived next door in Walker Cottage (No. 12, no longer extant). The Bakers came to the hotel with one or two private railroad cars 13 and employed a guide, Charlie Bigelow, as camp caretaker.
Harriman Cottage, the middle-sized cottage, built c. 1894, had a living room, six bedrooms, three baths, and three fireplaces. Although according to available documentation it was built later, by style and location it appears to be the earliest of the three. The cottage was named for Edward Henry Harriman (1848-1909), the railroad magnate and early hotel patron. In 1879, Harriman married Mary Williamson Averell, the daughter of an Ogdensburg, New York, banker and railroad president. Soon thereafter Harriman began a career as a rebuilder of bankrupt railroads. Perhaps the nearness to Mary's home was one reason to visit Paul Smith's Hotel.
E.H. Harriman's son William Averell Harriman (1891-1986) probably stayed at the cottage as a boy. Averell went on to a distinguished career in government. Among many federal positions, he was the chief U.S. negotiator at the Paris peace talks seeking an end to the Vietnam War. He served one term as governor of New York State from 1954 to 1958.
E.H. Harriman accompanied E. L. Trudeau in 1873 on his first summer visit to Paul Smith's Hotel after he was diagnosed with tuberculosis. Trudeau wrote:
another friend of mine . . E.H. Harriman, offered to come up and look after me and spend most of the month of August with me. This was before Mr. Harriman had begun his wonderful career as a railroad organizer and a great financier — for I believe he was still a clerk in the office of D. C. Hays & Company at that time — and a more light-hearted and better companion and friend I could not have had. 14
A telegram which read "Head me—here I come. E.H.H." preceded his arrival by a few hours. Paul Smith had purchased somewhere a gilt ball which with great pride he had had placed on the flag-pole in front of the hotel. I told Paul that I knew if Ed Harriman caught sight of that ball when he arrived the first thing he would do would be to shoot at it. As the stage stopped Ed Harriman jumped out, rifle in hand, caught sight of the bright ball at the top of the flag-pole, and put a bullet through it before shaking hands with us all. 15
Accompanying this nomination is a copy of an historic photograph labeled "Cottage of E. L. Trudeau, M.D., from Lower St. Regis Lake," which shows Harriman Cottage. 16 Harriman may very well have given up the use of his cottage in favor of his life-long friend. Though Trudeau's use goes unmentioned in his autobiography, it is supported by two of his unpublished letters. Writing from the hotel, Dr. Trudeau stated that it was a "...dreadful sight to see our cottage burning. Lottie and I are at Dr. Baker's, Francis with friends in the Winter Cottage." Another letter, probably describing the same occasion, states that he had "returned ... to find . . . Dr. Welch's and my cottage badly singed though not quite burned. Needs a new roof". Occupancy of Harriman Cottage by Dr. Trudeau, himself a tuberculosis patient, would also explain the presence of the second-floor sleeping porch.
Harriman remained a life-long friend of Trudeau's and became a trustee of the Adirondack Cottage Sanitarium in 1891, remaining on the board until his death in 1909, a charitable pursuit not mentioned in biographical sketches. Harriman's quiet support of the doctor's work stands in strong contrast to his public reputation for ruthlessness in matters of railroad and finance.
An undated map titled "Paul Smith's Adirondack Park" was probably drawn c.1905 to show the hotel in its most built-out state, when its greatest development was complete. It lists 15 cottages: No. 1 - Jones, No. 2 - Greene, No. 3 -McAlpin, No. 4 - Lambert, No. 5 - Milbank, No. 6 - Fletcher, No. 7 - Maffitt, No. 8 - Loomis, No. 9 - Harriman, No. 10 - Glover, No. 11 - Baker, No. 12 -Walker, No. 13 - Hill, No. 14 - McNaughton, and No. 15 - Kellogg. The map shows Cottage No. 1 alone to the east of the hotel, Nos. 2-7 behind the hotel, and Nos. 8-15 ranged along the lakeshore to the west. Another list mentions Turner and Whitney cottages, not shown on the map, and omits Jones, Greene and Loomis; 17 perhaps some of the cottages were renamed with changes in tenancy.
A c.1920 hotel brochure describes: "Hotel cottages within easy walking distance for meals at hotel — or hotel cottages arranged for housekeeping." 18
In addition to the 200-room hotel complex and vast landholdings, Paul Smith's investments grew to include hydroelectric power-generating facilities (Paul Smith's Electric Light and Power and Railroad Company Complex, Saranac Lake, N.Y., National Register listed 1987), a timber business, and a 7-mile electric railroad connected to the New York Central at Lake Clear, with a siding at the hotel for guests' private railroad cars. The hotel also served as cent
ral headquarters, supply depot and post office for the surrounding private camps.
Throughout his life, Paul Smith continued to be active in the business, though he took several long trips. He was never seriously ill until he required kidney surgery in October, 1912, at Queen Victoria Hospital in Montreal, Canada. He died December 15, 1912, age 87, following a second operation there. Adirondack historian Alfred Donaldson wrote that "every newspaper in the State, and many outside of it, published lengthy obituaries." 19 His surviving sons, Phelps and Paul, Jr., managed the hotel until 1925 when Paul, Jr., the only Smith son to have married, sold out his interest for health reasons. He died in 1927 without children, and is buried in Woodlawn, New York. Phelps Smith continued to operate the hotel alone.
In the summer of 1926, President Calvin Coolidge, staying at nearby White Pine Camp, used the Glover Cottage at Paul Smith's Hotel as the Summer Executive Mansion, the nation's temporary administration building, from July 7 until September 18. The availability of Glover Cottage may well have been a political favor provided by C. C. Glover. Its use was described in the contemporary press:
On the first floor is a reception room, where Patrick McKenna presides; across the hall is the President's office, containing an open fireplace, a heavy oak desk and a number of comfortable chairs. Other offices are on the same floor. Above, on the second floor, Everett Sanders, secretary to the President, has his offices, and near him are the clerks and stenographers and Edward T. Clark, private secretary to the President. The telephone and telegraph offices are also here.
Two White House telegraphers sit at the key, while another White House attache operates the telephone board . . . [which] is active twenty-four hours. 20
Which cottage was used as the telegraph office staffed by a dozen expert operators, is unknown. "One of the favorite pastimes of the local residents and hotel guests," wrote one historian, "was to congregate on the road above the cottage and watch the president at work through the windows." 21
The officers of the President's military guard, the staff, secret servicemen, newspaper men and others were also accommodated in the Paul Smith's Hotel and cottages. Phelps, now sole proprietor of the hotel and also head of the local electric company, apparently took it upon himself to upgrade the branch power line into the camp so there would be every possible convenience for the President of the United States. Phelps — who could match Coolidge's famous reputation for silence —took no bows for this extra effort, nor did he ever seek recognition for the care he took to see that the power line was constantly monitored for serviceability while the president was there.
But somehow Coolidge learned about it; the story ....is that his fishing guide told him....Coolidge made it his business to call on Phelps and thank him personally. 22
During his ten weeks there, the President had many visitors, including New York Governor Alfred E. Smith and American Ambassador to Mexico James R. Sheffield (who had a camp on nearby Upper Saranac Lake), and made some far-reaching decisions. As a result of discussions at Glover Cottage, Chicago was established as the nation's east-west airport hub, paving the way for O'Hare Airport eventually to become the nation's busiest airport, and a series of meetings on Latin American policy led to the decision to send the Marines into Nicaragua, which resulted in putting Anastasio Somoza (1896-1956) into power.
A widely disseminated photo shows Coolidge with Phelps Smith on the steps of Glover Cottage. Both President and Mrs. Coolidge wrote thank-you notes to Phelps before they returned to Washington in September. 23
Four years after President Coolidge's stay at Paul Smiths Hotel, the hotel's main building burned to the ground, on September 5, 1930. However, none of the cottages surrounding the hotel were damaged. The Smith family cottage (winter quarters) was quickly enlarged and that, plus the cottages, served as the hotel.
Phelps Smith, the last member of the family, died in 1937 without heirs, leaving his entire estate to establish a college in memory of his father. This was an ironic memorial to a man who had often expressed his scorn for book-learning, as opposed to native intelligence. This new philanthropy reflected the Smith family's concern for the people of the Town of Brighton, whose largest landowners and employers they had been.
The New York State Board of Regents granted Paul Smith's College of Arts and Sciences a charter as a Junior College on October 15, 1930, though the college did not open its doors to students until September of 1946. After the college opened in 1946, Harrinan Cottage was used as one of three men's dormitories; later it housed Tau Kappa Beta Fraternity. Since the 1940s, Glover Cottage has been continuously occupied by the families of Paul Smith's College presidents and other administrators. Under college operation, Baker Cottage was first renovated as a dormitory, housing 13 students; from May 1964 until 1978, it was occupied by Delta Alpha Phi, a local social and service fraternity, and in recent years members have undertaken volunteer restoration efforts, including porch repairs and paint stripping on interior woodwork. In the late 1980s, Adirondack Park Visitors Interpretive Center personnel used the second floor as temporary office space, while various college functions occupied the first floor.
The college continued hotel operations in the small hotel building, called Smith Cottage, and in the lakefront cottages with housekeeping facilities, which were available at special family rates. 24 On June 27, 1962, the small hotel building burned, going the way of so many other wood-frame hotels in the Adirondacks and officially ending Paul Smith's Hotel operations. All that remained of the hotel were the cottages and support buildings. In 1980, 11 cottages remained, and today five of the hotel cottages still stand: Lambert (No. 4); Harriman (No. 9); Glover (No. 10); Baker (No. 11); and McNaughton (No. 14). The only other substantial artifacts of the hotel that remain are the oil painting of Paul Smith rescued from the hotel's flames and now in the President's office; the tower of the library building; the small bridge built for Paul Smith's electric railroad; a storage shed; and the stagecoach, which the college community has restored and in which it takes great pride.
Baker, Glover and Harriman Cottages are historically significant as rare surviving examples of early Colonial Revival cottages built to supplement and expand the types of accommodations offered by Paul Smith's Hotel. These three white wooden cottages in their untouched setting on the shore of Saint Regis Lake are the last vestiges which retain a sense of that pioneering Adirondack hotel. The secluded lakeside setting of these three hotel cottages remains virtually the same as it was in Paul Smith's lifetime. Stylistically, these buildings are excellent examples of the popular Colonial Revival style, as interpreted in a remote location by hotel owners and employees untutored in architectural design.
Major Bibliographical References
Collins, Geraldine. The Biography and Funny Savings of Paul Smith. (Paul Smiths, NY: Paul Smith's College, 1965).
Collins, Geraldine. The Brighton Story; Being the History of Paul Smiths,Gabriels and Rainbow Lake, (reprint, Saranac Lake, NY: The Chauncy Press, 1986).
Crawford & Stearns Architects. "The Harriman Cottages on Lower Saint Regis Lake," Condition and Redevelopment Report, February 1990.
Donaldson, Alfred L. A History of the Adirondacks. Vol.1 (New York: The Century Co., 1921), 320.
Hooker, Mildred Phelps Stokes. Camp Chronicles. (Blue Mountain Lake, NY: Adirondack Museum, 1964).
McGowan, Robert Harold. Architecture from the Adirondack Foothills; Folk and Designed Architecture of Franklin County, New York. (Malone, NY: Franklin County Historical and Museum Society, 1977).
Michael, Charles R. New York Times Magazine. Sunday, August 1, 1926, 1.
"Paul Smith's Hotel.," brochure, (Paul Smith's, N.Y.: Paul Smith's Hotel Co., 1898).
"Paul Smith's Hotel and Cottages: on St. Regis Chain of Lakes," brochure, n.d., Adirondack Collection, Saranac Lake Free Library, Saranac Lake, NY.
Suprenant (sic: Surprenant), Neil. "Paul Smith," in Adirondack Life. July-August 1979, 19-21, 38-40.
Surprenant, Neil. "The Great Camp No One Knows," Adirondac. May 1989, 21-23.
Trudeau, Edward Livingston, M.D., An Autobiography. (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, Doran & Co., 1934).
Tyler, Helen Escha. The Story of Paul Smith; Born Smart. Utica, NY: North Country Books, Inc., 1988.
Woods, James R. Paul Smith's College. 1937-1980, A Saga of Strife. Struggle and Success. (Paul Smiths, NY: Paul Smith's College, 1980.)
1. Geraldine Collins, The Brighton Story (Saranac Lake, NY: The Chauncy Press, 1986), 107.
2. Collins (Ibid:9)
3. Edward Livingston Trudeau, M.D., An Autobiography (Garden City, NY: Doubelday, Doran & Co., 1934). 81.
4. Neil Surprenant, "Paul Smith," Adirondack Life, July - August 1979.
5. Collins, The Brighton Story; Being the History of Paul Smiths, Gabriels and Rainbow Lake (reprint, Saranac Lake, NY: The Chauncy Press, 1986), 103.
6. Wallaces's Guide to the Adirondacks, 1880, quoted in Suprenant, "Paul Smith", 21.
7. Paul Smith's Hotel Store was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1980 and demolished in 1982.
8. Surprenant, "Paul Smith," 38.
9. Helen Escha Tyler, The Story of Paul Smith; Born Smart (Utica, NY: North Country Books, Inc. 1988), 153.
10. Collins, Brighton, 108. Her source was an article in a Saranac Lake newspaper.
11. Who's Who in America. Vol. 19, 1936-37, 993.
12. James R. Woods, Paul Smith's College, 1937-1980. A Saga of Strife, Struggle and Success. (Paul Smiths, NY; Paul Smith's College, 1980), 73. His source was "P.S. Cottage and Camp folder, n.d., An advertising brochure (c.1919) listing cottages available for rent at the old hotel".
13. Ruth Hoyt (Paul Smith's Historian/Museum Curator) to author, July 1, 1998.
14. Trudeau, 90-96.
15. Ibid, 90.
16. "Paul Smith's Hotel" brochure (Paul Smiths, NY: Paul Smith's Hotel Co., 1898
17. Tyler, 153.
18. "Paul Smith's Adirondack Park: Camp, Cottage, Casino and Hotel Life in the Adirondacks," brochure, n.d., c.1920-37; Adirondack Collection', Saranac Lake Free Library.
19. Donaldson, I, 328.
20. Charles R. Michael.; New York Times Magazine, Sunday, August 1, 1926, 1.
21. Neil Surprenant, "The Great Camp No One Knows", Adirondac. May 1989, 23.
22. Woods, 109.
23. Ibid, 109-110.
24. "Paul Smith's Hotel and Cottages: on St. Regis Chain of Lakes," brochure, n.d., c.1937-?; Adirondack Collection, Saranac Lake Free Library.
25. More recent research suggests that Lydia Martin did not attend Emma Willard, per Neil Surprenant
New York Tribune, September 3, 1922
In the Adirondacks
…The principal musical event of the season was on Monday evening in the hotel parlors when Mr. Carmine Fabrizio, violinist, who has one of the hotel cottages this season, gave a recital at which a large sum was realized in aid of Trudeau sanatorium at Saranac Lake. Dr. Walter B. James, president of the sanatorium; Mrs. James, Mrs. Whitelaw Reid, Mr. and Mrs. George S. Brewster and others of the St. Regis campers interested in the institution were among those in the audience…
Entries under Paul Smith's Cottages from the 1917 Mountain Home Telephone directory:
Cottage 1, Jones
Cottage 3, Faulkner
Cottage 4, Dr. Clark
Cottage 5, Hewitt
Cottage 6, Milbank
Cottage 7, Sloane
Cottage 8, Maffitt
Cottage 9, Terry
Cottage 10, Dr. Trudeau
Cottage 11, Carnegie
Cottage 12, Dr. Baker
Cottage 13, Harris